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Geoquímica del manto

¿Qué es la Geoquímica?

Geoquímica es el estudio científico de la distribución, composición y transformación de elementos y compuestos químicos en la Tierra y otros planetas. Se enfoca en comprender los procesos y reacciones químicos que ocurren dentro de los sistemas de la Tierra, incluida la Tierra sólida, la hidrosfera (agua), la atmósfera (aire) y la biosfera (organismos vivos).

Los geoquímicos investigan las fuentes, las vías y el destino de los elementos y compuestos en diferentes materiales de la Tierra, como rocas, minerales, suelos, sedimentos, cuerpos de agua y la atmósfera. Estudian varios aspectos de los procesos geoquímicos, incluido el origen y la evolución de los elementos, su distribución en diferentes yacimientos y sus interacciones con el medio ambiente.

Áreas de estudio

Some key areas of study in geochemistry include:
 

  • Elemental and isotopic composition: Geochemists analyze the abundance, distribution, and isotopic ratios of elements in different materials. Isotopic compositions can provide valuable information about the origin and history of materials.

  • Geochemical cycles: Geochemists study the cycling of elements and compounds between different Earth reservoirs, such as the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and water cycle. They examine processes like weathering, erosion, volcanic activity, and biological activity that contribute to these cycles.

  • Geochemical reactions: Geochemists investigate the chemical reactions that occur within Earth materials, such as mineral formation, dissolution, and alteration. They study thermodynamics, kinetics, and equilibrium conditions to understand these reactions.

  • Tracing geological processes: Geochemists use geochemical signatures, such as isotopic ratios and elemental compositions, to trace and understand geological processes. These signatures can help determine the source of rocks, the history of magma formation, or the movement of fluids.

  • Environmental geochemistry: Geochemists also focus on the impact of human activities on the environment, including pollution, contamination, and the remediation of contaminated sites. They study the behavior of contaminants and their interaction with natural systems.


Geochemistry has applications in various fields, including Earth sciences, environmental sciences, planetary sciences, petrology, hydrology, and mining. It provides insights into Earth's history, helps predict natural hazards, contributes to the discovery of mineral resources, and aids in environmental management and conservation efforts.

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